Home > Products > Pocket-Sized Instruments >

AquaPen-C AP-C 110

AquaPen-C is a new cuvette version of the FluorPen fluorometer. It is a pocket-sized lightweight device that is very convenient for quick, reliable, and easily repeatable measurements in the field or laboratory. It is equipped with a blue and red LED emitter, optically filtered and precisely focused to deliver light intensities of up to 3,000 µmol(photon).m-2.s-1 to measured suspensions. Blue excitation light (455 nm) is intended for chlorophyll excitation, i.e., for measuring chlorophyll fluorescence in algal cultures. Red-orange excitation light (620 nm) is intended for excitation through phycobilins and is suitable for measuring in cyanobacteria. Due to high sensitivity - 0.5 µg Chl/l - the AquaPen-C can measure natural water samples containing low concentrations of phytoplankton.

Data transfer is via USB or Bluetooth communication. Comprehensive FluorPen 1.0 software provides data transfer routines and many additional features for data presentation in tables and graphs. The device features an inbuilt GPS Module. Parameters recorded by the AquaPen-C include FT, QY, NPQ, OJIP Analysis, Light Curve, and also optical density at 680 and 720 nm.

  • Photosynthesis research
  • Photosynthesis education
  • Phycology
  • Limnology
  • Oceanography
  • Biotechnology
  • AquaPen-C
  • FT - Instantaneous Chlorophyll Fluorescence. FT is equivalent to F0 if the sample is dark-adapted.
  • QY - Quantum Yield. QY is a measure of the Photosystem II efficiency. QY is equivalent to FV/FM in dark-adapted samples and to FV ' /FM ' in light-adapted samples.
  • OJIP - Chlorophyll Fluorescence Transient. OJIP measurement is used as an important biophysical signal that reflects the time course of photosynthesis.
  • NPQ - Non-Photochemical Quenching. NPQ indicates thermal dissipation of absorbed light energy during photosynthesis.
  • LC - Light Curve. Photosystem II Quantum Yield estimated from fluorescence that is measured sequentially in several different light levels.
  • OD - Optical Density at 680 nm and 720 nm.
  • AquaPen-C AP-C 100
  • Two predefined NPQ protocols differing in the duration of light exposure and dark recovery phase as well as in the number of intervals between the pulses
  • Typically used for quantification of photochemical and non-photochemical quenching in dark-adapted samples
  • NPQ 1 protocol: light duration 60s, 5 pulses; dark recovery duration 88s, 3 pulses
  • NPQ 2 protocol: light duration 200s, 10 pulses; dark recovery duration 390s, 7 pulses
  • NPQ Protocol Visualization
  • Three predefined protocols differing in number and duration of single light phases and light intensities
  • Based on pulse modulated fluorometry
  • Successive measurments of the sample photosynthesis under various light intensities of continuous illumination
  • Light response curve relating the rate of photosynthesis to photon flux density
  • Light Curve Protocol Visualization
  • Bckg = background
  • F0: = F50µs; fluorescence intensity at 50 µs
  • FJ: = fluorescence intensity at j-step (at 2 ms)
  • Fi: = fluorescence intensity at i-step (at 60 ms)
  • FM: = maximal fluorescence intensity
  • FV: = FM - F0 (maximal variable fluorescence)
  • VJ = (FJ - F0) / (FM - F0)
  • Vi = (Fi - F0) / (FM - F0)
  • FM / F0
  • FV / F0
  • FV/ FM
  • M0 or (dV / dt)0 = TR0 / RC - ET0 / RC = 4 (F300 - F0) / (FM - F0)
  • Area = area between fluorescence curve and FM (background subtracted)
  • Fix Area = total area above the OJIP fluorescence transient - between F40µ and F1s(background subtracted)
  • SM = area / FM - F0 (multiple turn-over)
  • Ss = the smallest Sm turn-over (single turn-over)
  • N = SM . M0 . (1 / VJ) turn-over number QA
  • Phi_P0 = 1 - (F0 / FM (or FV / FM)
  • Psi_0 = 1 - VJ
  • Phi_E0 = (1 - F0 / FM)) . Psi_0
  • Phi_D0 = 1 - Phi_P0 - (F0 / FM)
  • Phi_Pav = Phi_P0 - (SM / tFM); tFM) = Time to reach FM (in ms)
  • ABS / RC = M0 . (1 / VJ) . (1 / Phi_P0)
  • TR0 / RC = M0 . (1 / VJ)
  • ET0 / RC = M0 . (1 / VJ) . Phi_0)
  • DI0 / RC = (ABS / RC) - (TR0 / RC)
Formulas Derived From:
R.J. Strasser, A. Srivastava and M. Tsimilli-Michael (2000): The fluorescence transient as a tool to characterize and screen photosynthetic samples. In: Probing Photosynthesis: Mechanism, Regulation and Adaptation (M. Yunus, U. Pathre and P. Mohanty, eds.), Taylor and Francis, UK, Chapter 25, pp 445-483.
  • FluorPen 1.0 software (Windows 2000, XP, or higher compatible*)
  • Bluetooth, USB or serial communication
  • Real-time and remote control functions
  • Export to Microsoft Excel
  • GPS mapping plug-in
  • OJIP Curve
* Windows is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation
  • Measured/Calculated Parameters:
    F0 ; FT ; FM ; FM ' ; QY; OJIP; NPQ 1,2; LC 1,2,3; OD 680 , OD 720
  • Saturating Light:
    Adjustable from 0 to 100 % (up to 3,000 µmol(photon).m-2.s-1
  • Actinic Light:
    Adjustable from 0 to 100 % (up to 1,000 µmol(photon).m-2.s-1
  • Measuring Light:
    Red and blue light; adjustable from 0 to 100 % (up to 0.09 µmol(photon).m-2 per pulse)
  • Emitter:
    Blue (455 nm) and red-orange (620 nm) LED - optically filtered and precisely focused
  • Detector Wavelength Range:
    PIN photodiode with 667 to 750 nm bandpass filters
  • FluorPen 1.0 Software:
    Windows 2000, XP, or higher*
  • Memory Capacity (16 Mb):
    Ft: up to 149,000 measurings
    QY: up to 95,000 measurings
    LC1: up to 3,000 measurings
    LC2: up to 3,500 measurings
    LC3: up to 2,600 measurings
    NPQ1: up to 800 measurings
    NPQ2: up to 500 measurings
    OJIP: up to 1,100 measurings
  • Display:
    2 x 8 characters LC display
  • Keypad:
    Sealed, 2-key tactile response
  • Keypad Escape Time:
    Turns off after 8 minutes of no use
  • Power Supply:
    Rechargeable Li-ion battery
  • Battery Life:
    100 hours typical with full operation
  • Low Battery Detection:
    Low battery indication displayed
  • Size:
    140 x 55 x 50 mm; 5.5 " x 2.2" x 2.0"
  • Weight:
    300 g, 10.6 oz
  • Sample Holder:
    4 ml cuvette
  • Operating Conditions:
    Temperature: 0 to 55 ºC; 32 to 130 ºF. Relative humidity: 0 to 95 % (non-condensing)
  • Storage Conditions:
    Temperature: -10 to +60 ºC; 14 to +140 ºF. Relative humidity: 0 to 95 % (non-condensing)
  • Warranty:
    1 year parts and labor
* Windows is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation
  • GOIRIS K., VAN COLEN W., WILCHES I. ET AL. (2015): Impact of nutrient stress on antioxidant production in three species of microalgae. Algal Research. Volume 7, Pages 51-57. DOI:10.1016/j.algal.2014.12.002
  • DE MARCHIN T., GHYSELS B., NICOLAY S. ET AL. (2014) Analysis of PSII antenna size heterogeneity of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii during state ransitions. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Bioenergetics, Volume 1837, Pages 121-130. DOI:10.1016/j.bbabio.2013.07.009
  • MALAPASCUA J. R. F., JEREZ C. G., SERGEJEVOVÁ M. ET AL. (2014). Photosynthesis monitoring to optimize growth of microalgal mass cultures: application of chlorophyll fluorescence techniques. Aquatic Biology; Volume 22, Pages 123–140. DOI: 10.3354/ab00597
  • SALEH M. M., MATORIN D. N., ZAYADAN B. K. ET AL. (2014). Differentiation between two strains of microalga Parachlorella kessleriusing modern spectroscopic method. Botanical Studies, Pages 55-53. DOI: 10.1186/s40529-014-0053-7
  • THRANE J. E., HESSEN D. O. AND ANDERSEN T. (2014). The Absorption of Light in Lakes: Negative Impact of Dissolved Organic Carbon on Primary Productivity; Ecosystems. Volume 17: Pages 1040–1052. DOI: 10.1007/s10021-014-9776-2
  • THOMMER G., LEYNAERT A., KLEIN C. ET AL. (2013). Phytoplankton phosphorus limitation in a North Atlantic coastal ecosystem not predicted by nutrient load. Journal of Plankton Research. 0(0). Pages 1 – 13. DOI:10.1093/plankt/fbt070
  • LAZÁR D, MURCH S. J., BEILBY M. J. ET AL. (2013). Exogenous melatonin affects photosynthesis in characeae Chara australis; Plant Signaling and Behavior. Volume 8(3): e23279. DOI: 10.4161/psb.23279
  • CAMERON J. C., WILSON S. C., BERNSTEIN S. L. ET AL. (2013). Biogenesis of a Bacterial Organelle: The Carboxysome Assembly Pathway;; Cell, Volume 155, Issue 5, Pages 1131-1140. DOI:10.1016/j.cell.2013.10.044
  • FIGUEROA F. L., JEREZ C. G. AND KORBEE N. (2013). Use of in vivo chlorophyll fluorescence to estimate photosynthetic activity and biomass productivity in microalgae grown in different culture systems. Latin American Journal of Aquatic Research. Volume 41, no. 5, Pages 801-819. DOI: 103856/vol41-issue5-fulltext-1
  • OSANAI T., KUWAHARA A., IIJIMA H.ET AL. (2013). Pleiotropic effect of sigE over-expression on cell morphology, photosynthesis and hydrogen production in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803; The Plant Journal. Volume 76, Pages 456–465. DOI: 10.1111/tpj.12310
  • ZAKERI H. A. AND BAKAR L. A. (2013). Copper-, Lead- and Mercury-Induced Changes in Maximum Quantum Yield, Chlorophyll A Content and Relative Growth of Three Malaysian Green Macroalgae; Malaysian Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences. Voume 9, Pages 16-21.
  • ALAMI M, LAZAR D AND GREEN B. R. (2012). The harmful alga AUREOCOCCUS ANOPHAGEFFERENS utilizes 19′-butanoyloxyfucoxanthin as well as xanthophyll cycle carotenoids in acclimating to higher light intensities;; Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) – Bioenergetics; Volume 1817, Issue 9, Pages 1557–1564 DOI:10.1016/j.bbabio.2012.05.006
  • LELONG A., HÉGARET H. AND SOUDANT P. (2011). Cell-based measurements to assess physiological status of Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries, a toxic diatom; Research in Microbiology, Volume 162, Issue 9, Pages 969-98. DOI:10.1016/j.resmic.2011.06.005
  • STALEY Z. R., ROHR J. R. AND HARWOOD V. J.( 2011). Test of Direct and Indirect Effects of Agrochemicals on the Survival of Fecal Indicator Bacteria. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. Pages 8765–8774. DOI: 10.1128/AEM.06044-11
  • Q.T. GAO AND N.F.Y. TAM. (2011). Growth, photosynthesis and antioxidant responses of two microalgal species, CHLORELLA VULGARIS and SELENASTRUM CAPRICORNUTUM, to nonylphenol stress. Chemosphere; Volume 82, Issue 3, Pages 346–354. DOI:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2010.10.010
  • VANDAMME D, FOUBERT I., MEESSCHAERT B.ET AL (2010). Flocculation of microalgae using cationic starch; Journal of Applied Phycology, Volume 22, Issue 4, Pages 525-530. DOI: 10.1007/s10811-009-9488-8
  • KVÍDEROVÁ JANA. (2010). Rapid algal toxicity assay using variable chlorophyll fluorescence for Chlorella kessleri (chlorophyta). Journal of Environmental Toxicology. Volume 25(6), Pages 554-63. DOI:10.1002/tox.20516
  • KROMKAMP J. C., BEARDALL J., SUKENIK A. ET AL. (2009). Short-term variations in photosynthetic parameters of Nannochloropsis cultures grown in two types of outdoor mass cultivation systems. Aquatic Microbial Ecology; Volume 56, Pages 309–322. DOI: 10.3354/ame01318


  • Orders and Payments
  • AquaPen AP 110/C
    2.499,- €
  • Mini-Computer *
    390,- €
  • Substitute USB Communication Cable *
    39,- €
  • Set of 10 Cuvettes for AquaPen-C *
    10,- €

Optional Features and Accessories

Small, portable notebook (type according to current availability on the market).

Substitute USB Communication Cable
Substitute USB cable allowing connection between the "pen" devices and a PC (the device is delivered with one USB cable, which is included in the device price).

Set of 10 Cuvettes for AquaPen-C
Set of ten plastic 4 ml cuvettes used in the AquaPen-C.


FluorPen 1.0
OS: Windows 2000 / Windows XP / Windows 7 (32bit, 64bit) / Windows 8 (32 bit, 64bit)/ Windows 10 (32 bit, 64bit),
Language: English
Size: 11.1 MB

SpectraPen Installer for SpectraPen, PolyPen and PolyPen-Aqua
OS: Windows 7 (32bit, 64bit) and higher
Language: English
Size: 978 KB

Pen USB Driver for FluorPen, Par-FluorPen, PlantPen, AquaPen, N-Pen
OS: Windows
Language: English
Size: 2.3 MB

FluorPen Series Manual
Type: PDF
Language: English
Size: 4.7 MB

FluorPen - List of References
Type: PDF
Language: English
Size: 904 KB

FluorPen Explain
Type: PDF
Language: English
Size: 2.8 MB

SpectraPen SP 100 Manual
Type: PDF
Language: English
Size: 1.4 MB

SpectraPen SP 100 - List of References
Type: PDF
Language: English
Size: 131 KB

SpectraPen LM 500 Manual
Type: PDF
Language: English
Size: 2.9 MB

PolyPen Manual
Type: PDF
Language: English
Size: 3.1 MB

PolyPen - List of References
Type: PDF
Language: English

AquaPen Manual
Type: PDF
Language: English
Size: 4.1 MB

AquaPen Manual (Czech)
Type: PDF
Language: English
Size: 4.0 MB

AquaPen - List of References
Type: PDF
Language: Czech
Size: 1.1 MB

LaiPen Manual
Type: PDF
Language: English
Size: 2.0 MB

LaiPen - List of References
Type: PDF
Language: English
Size: 135 KB

N-Pen Brief Guide
Type: PDF
Language: English
Size: 104 KB

N-Pen - List of References
Type: PDF
Language: English

PlantPen NDVI-PRI Operation Manual
Type: PDF
Language: English
Size: 2.7 MB

PlantPen - List of References
Type: PDF
Language: English
Size: 181 KB

Other Pocket-Sized-Instruments

FluorPen FP 100

FluorPen is a hand-held fluorometer that measures chlorophyll fluorescence parameters in a fully automated and rapid manner.
- Photosynthesis Research & Education
- Large plant screening programs
- Agriculture & Forestry
- Biotechnology

PAR-FluorPen FP 100-MAX-LM

PAR-FluorPen is used to measure fluorescence and Photosynthetic Photon Flux Density (PPFD) of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR).
- Photosynthesis Research & Education
- Plant & Molecular Biology
- Agriculture & Forestry
- Biotechnology

Monitoring Pen MP 100

Monitoring Pen is a robust and weather-proof version of the popular FluorPen that is intended for unattended use in a field.
- Photosynthesis Research & Education
- Long-Term, Autonomous Fluorometry Experiments

AquaPen-C AP-C 100

AquaPen-C is a new cuvette version of the popular FluorPen fluorometer. It is optimized for measuring chlorophyll fluorescence in green algae and cyanobacteria. AquaPen sensitivity 500 ng Chl/l enables measuring in natural water.
- Photosynthesis Research & Education
- Biotechnology
- Limnology & Oceanography

AquaPen-P AP-P 100

AquaPen-P is equipped with a submersible optical probe. It suits investigations in algal suspensions and natural waters. AquaPen sensitivity: 500 ng Chl/l.
- Photosynthesis Research & Education
- Phycology
- Limnology & Oceanography
- Biotechnology

SpectraPen LM 500

SpectraPen with precise radiometric calibration and integrated cosine corrector. Number of formulas and calculated parameters: PAR, Watt, Lux, Lumen, CIE color coordinates, color rendering indexes, color temperatures.
- Light Characteristics Measurements
- Light Source Testing and Quality Control
- Color Measurement

SpectraPen SP 100

SpectraPen is a handheld, programmable spectrophotometer that provides instant readings and spectral lines on interactive touch screen.
- Visible Light Source Testing
- Color Measurement
- Chemical Measurement

PolyPen RP 400

PolyPen RP 400 is a complete system for measurement of spectral reflectance on flat leaves as well as measurements of transmittance and absorbance of any external light source. Integrated software is capable of automatic calculation of all common vegetation indices.

PlantPen PRI 200 & NDVI 300

PlantPen is a low-cost, handheld device that characterizes plants by means of reflectance. The two standard versions measure PRI and NDVI.
- Photosynthesis Research & Education
- Vegetation Productivity
- Vegetation Stress Studies
- Agriculture

N-Pen N 100

N-Pen is a light-weight, battery-powered instrument that provides quick measurement of actual nitrogen content in plants throughout their growing season.
- Significant Yield Increase
- Quick Tuning of Nitrogen Management in Crops
- Saving Nitrogen Application Costs

LaiPen LP 100

LaiPen is a light-weight, battery-powered device that mesures Leaf Area Index (LAI) and Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR). It provides fast and easily repeatable measurements with instant readouts that can be exported to a PC for further processing.
- Studies of Canopy Productivity
- Studies of Forest Dynamism
- Remote Sensing

Video Gallery