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Standard Fluorometer FL 3500-S

The core of the Standard Fluorometer FL 3500-S is the measuring optical head containing a standard cuvette for sample suspensions (10 x 10 mm base, up to 4 ml of internal volume). The measuring head is supplied with three sets of light-emitting diodes and a PIN diode detector with 500 kHz/16-bit AD converter. Gain and integration time of the converter are software controlled. The detector can measure Chl-fluorescence signal with time resolution up to 4 µs. Detection limit is 100 ng Chla/l.

The Fluorometer is supplied with three, optionally four, sets of light-emitting diodes that generate:
  • Measuring flashes, typically 2-5 µs long. Standard color: red-orange, λmax=617 nm, or blue, λmax=455 nm.
  • Single-turnover saturating flashes, typically 20-50 µs long. Standard color: red, λmax=630 nm.
  • Continuous actinic light. The maximum intensity is 2,500 µmol(photons).m-2.s-1. Standard color: red, λmax=630 nm, or blue, λmax=455 nm.
  • Additional far-red lightmax=735 nm) for Photosystem I excitation (optional).

Fluorometer FL 3500 Light Scheme / Spectral CharacteristicsFluorometer FL 3500 Light Scheme / Spectral Characteristics
Fluorometer FL 3500 Light Scheme / Spectral Characteristics


Light intensities and timing are software controlled separately for each LED set. The data are processed and the instrument is controlled by the FluorWin software (Windows 95/98/2000/XP compatible). As an option, the customer can also choose light-emitting diodes of different wavelengths. Contact PSI for your specific needs.

  • Four sets of light-emitting diodes – measuring light blue, measuring light red, single-turnover saturating light red, actinic light red
  • Light intensities and timings are software controlled separately for each LED set with 100 ns resolution
  • PIN photodiode detector with 40x variable gain for signal acquisition with 1MHz/16-bit maximum accuracy
  • The instrument capacity can be enhanced by accurate temperature regulation provided by the PSI Thermoregulator and Magnetic Stirrer Thermoregulator Magnetic Stirrer
    Thermoregulator / Magnetic Stirrer
  • Probing physiology of aquatic photoautotrophs
  • Measurement of efficiency of PSII photochemistry
  • Estimation of aquatic primary productivity
  • Molecular biology – screening for photosynthetic mutants
  • Detection of abiotic and biotic stress and stress tolerance
  • Taxonomical studies
  • Aquatic bloom detection
  • Fluorometer Head with Control Unit
  • Chloroplasts & thylakoids
  • Algae & cyanobacteria
  • Small leaves or leaf segments
  • Sample Cuvette
  • Fluorescence induction
  • Pulse amplitude modulation measurements (PAM)
  • Fast OJIP transient capture
  • Rapid measurements of QA-reoxidation kinetics
  • State transitions
  • Quenching parameters
  • Photochemical yields
  • Fluorometer
  • Creation and archivation of experimental protocols
  • FluorWin Wizard for automated protocols
  • Retrieval and export of experimental data
  • Data manipulation and visualization
  • FluorWin Software: Wizard / Graph WindowFluorWin Software: Wizard / Graph Window
    FluorWin Software: Wizard / Graph Window
  • Measured Fluorescence Parameters:
    F0, FM, FV, F’0, F’M, F’V, FT
  • Light Sources:
    620 nm and 460 nm in standard versions; other wavelengths available as an option
  • Super Pulse Irradiance:
    60,000 µmol(photon).m-2.s-1
  • Actinic Light Irradiance:
    Up to 3,000 µmol(photon).m-2.s-1
  • Custom Defined Protocols:
    Variable timing, special language and scripts
  • A/D Bit Resolution:
    16 bit
  • Detector time response:
    1 µs in FL 3500-F
    4 µs in FL 3500-S
  • Communication Port:
    USB 2.0
  • Weight:
    5 kg
  • Dimensions:
    29 x 20 x 11 cm (Control Box)
    Diameter 16 cm, height 6 cm (SuperHead Measuring Unit)
  • Power Input:
    20 W
  • Electrical:
    90 - 240 V
  • Warranty:
    1 year parts and labor
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  • VOLGUSHEVA A., STYRING S., MAMEDOV F. (2013): Increased photosystem II stability promotes H2 production in sulfur-deprived Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Volume 110. Pages7223-7228. DOI:10.1073/pnas.1220645110
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  • KATO Y., SHIBAMOTO T., YAMAMOTO S., ET AL. (2012): Influence of the PsbA1/PsbA3, Ca2+/Sr2+ and Cl−/Br− exchanges on the redox potential of the primary quinone QA in Photosystem II from Thermosynechococcus elongatus as revealed by spectroelectrochemistry. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) – Bioenergetics. Volume 1817. Pages 1998-2004. DOI: 10.1016/j.bbabio.2012.06.006
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  • ALLAKHVERDIEV S. I., TSUCHIYA T., WATABE K., ET AL. (2011): Redox potentials of primary electron acceptor quinone molecule (QA)− and conserved energetics of photosystem II in cyanobacteria with chlorophyll a and chlorophyll d. PNAS. Volume 108. Pages 8054-8058. DOI:10.1073/pnas.1100173108
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Pricing

  • Orders and Payments
  • Standard Fluorometer FL 3500-S
    8.490,- €
  • Fluorometer Optional Accessories - Infra-Red LED Unit
    1.490,- €
  • Fluorometer Optional Accessories - SuperHead
    3.490,- €
  • Fluorometer Optional Accessories - Thermoregulator TR 2000
    2.999,- €
  • Fluorometer Optional Accessories - Magnetic Stirrer
    998,- €
  • Fluorometer Optional Accessories - Oxygen Detector Module
    1.550,- €
  • Fluorometer Optional Accessories - Oxygen Electrode *
    690,- €

Optional Features and Accessories

Thermoregulator TR 2000
Provides precise temperature control in the range of 0 °C to +70 °C with an accuracy of 0.1 °C. The actual temperature is displayed on the front panel of the device. It includes control unit and temperature controller. TR 2000 can work in two modes: (i) constant mode, (ii) temperature ramp mode. In the constant mode, the instrument maintains a constant temperature of the measured sample. The temperature ramp mode enables linear changing of the sample temperature with a rate ranging from 0.1 °C/sec to 1 °C/sec.


Magnetic Stirrer
Magnetic Stirrer is designed to provide continuous stirring with little speed deviation and minimum heat build-up. Continuous, uniform stirring is essential for keeping a constant temperature within the entire sample volume when the temperature control is applied. The rate of stirring is set by a knob on the front panel of the device. Magnetic Stirrer is a handy accessory to PSI Fluorometers: it can be connected to the Fluorometer Control Unit and controlled by it (switched on and off). Two stirring bars are included in the price.


Oxygen Detector
Serves for oxygen evolution detection based on dynamic quenching of fluorescence (electrode sold separately). Important notice: Mechanical construction of the fluorometer does not allow simultaneous measurement of fluorescence and oxygen evolution.


Oxygen Electrode *
Supplement to oxygen detector module.


Infra-Red LED Unit
Allows measuring Fo' and PAR absorbance. It is also used during quenching analysis protocol.


Additional SuperHead
Fluorometer standard configuration can be enhanced by adding a second SuperHead. This SuperHead can be constructed with respect to customer's experimental needs: specific LED colors (Blue, Cyan, Amber) and detection bands (ChlA, ChlB).

Download

Software
FluorWin 3.6
OS: Win2000/XP/Win7 (32bit)/Win8 (32 bit)
Language: English
Size: 1.6 MB


FluorWin 3.7 (for FM 3500/F)
OS: Win2000/XP/Win7 (32bit)/Win8 (32 bit)
Language: English
Size: 1.6 MB


FluorWin 3.7 standard (for FM 3500/S, FM 3500/SM, and FM 3500/LC)
OS: Win2000/XP/Win7 (32bit)/Win8 (32 bit)
Language: English
Size: 1.6 MB


Documents
Fluorometer FL3000X User's Guide
Type: PDF
Language: English
Size: 598 KB


Algal Online Monitor Operation Manual
Type: PDF
Language: English
Size: 1.9 MB


FL3500 - Overview of Single Models
Type: PDF
Language: English
Size: 360 KB


Other Fluorometers

Standard Fluorometer FL 3500-S

Highly compact:
Measuring optical head with a standard cuvette for sample suspensions of aquatic or terrestrial plants.

Typical samples:
Suspensions of photosynthetically active organisms, small leaves, or leaf segments.


Fast Fluorometer FL 3500-F

Supported investigations:
- PAM measurements
- Fast kinetic measurements of OJIP
- Flash fluorescence induction
- State transitions etc.

Time resolution of 1 µs.


Algal Online Monitor

Flow-through monitoring:
Enables detection and continuous quantifying of photosynthetically active microorganisms in rivers, lakes, or artificial water reservoirs.

Detection limit: 30 ng Chl/l.


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